11
Jul

ROLE OF BIOREMEDIATION IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENT

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ROLE OF BIOREMEDIATION IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENT BIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation is a practice of involving organisms to eliminate or lessen the toxic effect of pollutants from waste. In this technique, microorganisms might be used for this waste remediation. These organisms could be toxic in some situations. The use of maggots to protect wounds is an example of medical bioremediation. The contaminated wounds born maggots in them which accurately heals the wound through eat contamination. The bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms continuously break down and decompose organic waste at waste sites. In case of oil spill in waste, some organisms die or some survive but bioremediation provides oxygen and fertilizer for increasing their chances of survival. It could facilitates break down of pollutants at accelerated rate. CLASSIFICATIONS OF BIOREMEDIATION In-situ In this class of bioremediation, the remediation technique is applied exactly at the location of contaminated waste site. The advantage of using bioremediation is lessen the contamination because transfer of waste from its origin might spread contamination to other places. But the area remains occupied for treatment. Ex-situ The contaminated waste is removed from its original site and transported to treatment area. In this class of bioremediation, the actual site is not occupied. TYPES OF BIOREMEDIATION Phytoremediation and rhizofiltration In this branch of bioremediation, the plants are used to eliminate contaminants from the soil/water and transfer them into their above ground parts (leaves, fruits and stem) of plants. Bioleaching In bioleaching, the metals are removed from soil by using organisms. Several types of living organisms have different absorbance levels for heavy metals and other pollutants which help to clean the environment i.e. soil or water. For instance, fish bones could attract cadmium and lead to their surfaces as recently discovered. Bioventing Bioventing is a technique in which air from outside injects into the waste through soil which enhance rates of oxygen. It accelerates decomposition process of organic material in waste. Composting It is a process in which waste is naturally decayed and thereby remediation is executed. Bioaugmentation and landfarming Inoculation of microorganisms and bacteria into contaminated soil to detoxify or decontaminate the contamination. In this process, the contaminated soil is excavated from its origin and shifted to surface soil of a location. Microorganisms and nutrients are incorporated into the soil which increasingly metabolize the waste. Bioreactor This is a designated container where the bioremediation is occurring. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOREMEDIATION Different kinds of living organisms such as bacteria or fungi performs their role to remediate diverse contaminants. Sufficient level of oxygen in air, soil and water facilitates the process of biodegradation aerobically. A certain amount of moisture in the soil maintaining water holding capacity positively influence bioremediation of pollutants. Suitable temperature, pH and the presence of macro (such as phosphorus and nitrogen and sulfur) and micro nutrients in the soil upgrades microbial population.

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10
Jul

Save Our Mother Earth

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Our Earth is the most beautiful planet in our solar system. As far as we know, Earth is the only planet that has life. Before 500 A.D., the man had a good relationship with Mother Earth. But since humans developed cities and industries, the modern lifestyle has changed. Man has been using and misusing natural resources up to the limit. Now we are tearing up remote corners of the planet looking for crude oil and coal, and our forests and wild animals are disappearing. Our environment is totally polluted: we drink polluted water, inhale air full of dust, and eat food with traces of pesticides and other toxic chemicals. Mother Earth is in danger; life on Earth is in danger. Let us come together to save our life-giving and life-saving Mother Earth. Save the Forest Save the Wildlife Save the Environment

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19
Jun

NOISE POLLUTION in Pakistan

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Undesirable sound for human hearing is what we call it noise pollution when it disrupts the functioning of human and other species in the environment. Noise is measured in decibels. The hearing effect vary from person to person, some having sensitive ears to loud compare to others but the limit to consider in pollution is though not stated but mostly it is considered that sound ranging 70-80 DB or higher is harmful to human hearing. However some state noise ranging 70-80 db. and higher is harmful to human ears. Now sound recorded in Pakistan cities as 76.5db in Karachi, 72.5 in Islamabad and a high of 86 db in Peshawar are the evidence of noise pollution in Pakistan which is a menace in our society, but has never been given attention since the problem is not visible unlike land, water pollution or any other pollution. Here the authorities fault is not only to keep a check but also their failure in land zoning

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18
Jun

NUCLEAR WASTE PRODUCED BY NUCLEAR SUBMARINES AND NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS DISPOSED OF SAFELY ENOUGH?

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Nuclear-waste is the radioactive waste material, from the use of reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Nuclear power is an advanced technology, involving the action of fission to produce energy. Here fission is a process in which nucleus of an atom is split into various smaller nuclei in return energy is released which produce heat which is then used to generate stem which helps turn the turbines, which produces power and collect in turbines which are then transformed into transmitters to grid station. Until now you may consider it to be a clean process because it does not release smoke into the air unlike fossil fuels, but many are unaware of the threat from the nuclear waste which is a major problem to deal with when considering the nuclear energy production. One considering to use nuclear power should be aware that of the issue of nuclear waste which remains radioactive for years and is a serious threat to human life since it can cause diseases like Leukemia, skin-cancer, etc. Chernobyl disaster in 1986, is a prime example which was a catastrophic nuclear incident which killed numerous lives ranging from 4,000 to 200,000 as a result of released

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18
Jun

FISHING AND ITS EFFECTS ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM

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Similarly, such advancement in fishing with technology have made fishing more easy and efficient and there have left less of the part of luck more like in former times. But do you feel it right to catch fish without any limits? The ocean is the same, isn’t it? So how will this ocean supply individuals with fish in future if all will be used up now? When answering these questions left us all blank because it is a fact that we are actually carrying this action of fishing unmindfully so unsustainable. A country like Peru, where fishing is the only source for people of their livelihood means all are engaged in this task so engulfing vast amount of fish species. Hence stated in united nation FAO statistics that the total number of commercial fisherman and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. So this is how ocean grabbing

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