19
Jul

Back Ground of Changa Manga

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BACKGROUND Geographical location: Changa Manga is the largest man made planted forest in the world. It covers around 50 km2 area and situated in Chunian district which is 80 km away from Lahore in the southwest (Ahmad, 2017; Ashraf et al., 2010; Murn et al., 2008). Under British rule over sub-continent (Pakistan/India) in year 1888, the plantation was initiated in this forest. Several theories exist about the name “Changa Manga” of this forest. Some people say that Changa and Manga were two brothers but such types of views are unconfirmed yet (Ahmed, 2017). The Lahore-Karachi railway track is situated on north side of this forest, arid areas of Gandian village on east and Wan Khara on west and residential area of Moujoki on south (Book).

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19
Jul

Phytoremediation

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A form of bioremediation is known as phytoremediation in which plants are used to eliminate, translocate, destroy or immobilize toxic pollutants like heavy metals in the soil or groundwater. The word “Phytoremediation” is composed of a Greek word “phyto” means plants and a Latin word “remedium” means re-obtaining balance. While combining these two words build a technology which uses plants to clear the contamination of soil and water. This technology is cost efficient in which plants are capable of obtaining concentrations of various compounds from the environment and metabolized in their tissue cells. Several biological and engineering approaches are integrated with functions of physiology and molecular technology to upgrade phytoremediation.

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19
Jul

PLANTS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

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Plants are an integral part of the ecosystem because they receive solar energy directly from sun and further provide their stored energy to ecosystem. Plants contain green pigment (chlorophyll) in their leaves which helps plants to change solar energy into food in the form of starch. This process is known as photosynthesis. The plants are rooted at one place and unable to move but need space for their productivity and growth. The cell wall of plant cells is made of a rigid material cellulose. Plants fulfill their nutritional requirements from the soil. Both macro and micro nutrients occurs in the soil via decomposition of organic materials. TYPES OF PLANTS SEASONAL PLANTS Annual or seasonal plants are those plants which complete their life cycle i.e. germination to production of seeds and fruits in a period of one year. In winter, plants germinate in autumn and becomes mature till spring or summer of coming year. In summer, plants start germinating in spring/beginning of summer and becomes mature till autumn. Crocus, Iris, Periwinkle, Love-lies-bleeding, Helenium, Golden rod, Pansy are instances of seasonal plants.

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18
Jul

Balanced Ecosystem

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Balanced ecosystem Ecosystem refers as an area where both abiotic (solar energy, temperature, soil and water) and biotic (natural plants, animals and humans) constituents interlinked with each other. There might prevail both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems on this Earth. In aquatic ecosystem, rocks provide shelter and plants supply oxygen to the fish population. A balance is achieved when biotic and abiotic constituents are in a cooperative relationship.

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16
Jul

Climate Change

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Atmosphere is a blanket of diverse gases e.g. oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and others around the Earth. Beside CH4 and CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3) and chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) are also classified as greenhouse gases (GHG) which absorbs heat from the sun and support for survival of life on this earth. An increment in the concentrations of GHG in atmosphere obviously raise up the temperature of earth and originates climate change. The consequences of climate change are cyclones, storms and floods. Global warming shows an overall trend of rise in average temperature of the earth.

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