Pollution and Threats

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Look around you and find the ecosystem, is it okay? You can see a lot of contamination, pollution streams loaded with industrial chemicals, rivers got polluted by nutrients which come from farms, inappropriate solid waste management and garbage blowing away from landfills, when you see up in the sky it’s all cover-up in smog. Even if you see chunks of land which are old also get polluted by the pollution.

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As the environmental situation is going grimmer day by day, it's a need of an hour to put efforts and join hands with each other to make this world a beautiful place to live in. As an environmental engineer, I believe that our country (Pakistan) is on the 7th number of world climate change and the condition is gradually down day by day. The government took initiatives of billion tree tsunami project to make the pollution condition into normal.

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ROLE OF BIOREMEDIATION IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENT BIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation is a practice of involving organisms to eliminate or lessen the toxic effect of pollutants from waste. In this technique, microorganisms might be used for this waste remediation. These organisms could be toxic in some situations. The use of maggots to protect wounds is an example of medical bioremediation. The contaminated wounds born maggots in them which accurately heals the wound through eat contamination. The bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms continuously break down and decompose organic waste at waste sites. In case of oil spill in waste, some organisms die or some survive but bioremediation provides oxygen and fertilizer for increasing their chances of survival. It could facilitates break down of pollutants at accelerated rate. CLASSIFICATIONS OF BIOREMEDIATION In-situ In this class of bioremediation, the remediation technique is applied exactly at the location of contaminated waste site. The advantage of using bioremediation is lessen the contamination because transfer of waste from its origin might spread contamination to other places. But the area remains occupied for treatment. Ex-situ The contaminated waste is removed from its original site and transported to treatment area. In this class of bioremediation, the actual site is not occupied. TYPES OF BIOREMEDIATION Phytoremediation and rhizofiltration In this branch of bioremediation, the plants are used to eliminate contaminants from the soil/water and transfer them into their above ground parts (leaves, fruits and stem) of plants. Bioleaching In bioleaching, the metals are removed from soil by using organisms. Several types of living organisms have different absorbance levels for heavy metals and other pollutants which help to clean the environment i.e. soil or water. For instance, fish bones could attract cadmium and lead to their surfaces as recently discovered. Bioventing Bioventing is a technique in which air from outside injects into the waste through soil which enhance rates of oxygen. It accelerates decomposition process of organic material in waste. Composting It is a process in which waste is naturally decayed and thereby remediation is executed. Bioaugmentation and landfarming Inoculation of microorganisms and bacteria into contaminated soil to detoxify or decontaminate the contamination. In this process, the contaminated soil is excavated from its origin and shifted to surface soil of a location. Microorganisms and nutrients are incorporated into the soil which increasingly metabolize the waste. Bioreactor This is a designated container where the bioremediation is occurring. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOREMEDIATION Different kinds of living organisms such as bacteria or fungi performs their role to remediate diverse contaminants. Sufficient level of oxygen in air, soil and water facilitates the process of biodegradation aerobically. A certain amount of moisture in the soil maintaining water holding capacity positively influence bioremediation of pollutants. Suitable temperature, pH and the presence of macro (such as phosphorus and nitrogen and sulfur) and micro nutrients in the soil upgrades microbial population.

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Save Our Mother Earth

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Our Earth is the most beautiful planet in our solar system. As far as we know, Earth is the only planet that has life. Before 500 A.D., the man had a good relationship with Mother Earth. But since humans developed cities and industries, the modern lifestyle has changed. Man has been using and misusing natural resources up to the limit. Now we are tearing up remote corners of the planet looking for crude oil and coal, and our forests and wild animals are disappearing. Our environment is totally polluted: we drink polluted water, inhale air full of dust, and eat food with traces of pesticides and other toxic chemicals. Mother Earth is in danger; life on Earth is in danger. Let us come together to save our life-giving and life-saving Mother Earth. Save the Forest Save the Wildlife Save the Environment

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Undesirable sound for human hearing is what we call it noise pollution when it disrupts the functioning of human and other species in the environment. Noise is measured in decibels. The hearing effect vary from person to person, some having sensitive ears to loud compare to others but the limit to consider in pollution is though not stated but mostly it is considered that sound ranging 70-80 DB or higher is harmful to human hearing. However some state noise ranging 70-80 db. and higher is harmful to human ears. Now sound recorded in Pakistan cities as 76.5db in Karachi, 72.5 in Islamabad and a high of 86 db in Peshawar are the evidence of noise pollution in Pakistan which is a menace in our society, but has never been given attention since the problem is not visible unlike land, water pollution or any other pollution. Here the authorities fault is not only to keep a check but also their failure in land zoning

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