Introduction to Montreal Protocol
Montreal protocol on ozone-depleting substances is a phase-out plan for the production and consumption of chemicals that harm the ozone layer. Montreal protocol is one of the important global environmental protection protocols. This protocol is innovative and worldwide accepted against ozone-depleting substances. Protocol gets a leverage response and all members of the United Nations ratified it. This protocol was ratified in 1987 and came into enforcement in 1989.
Montreal protocol is a framework in which a plan to phase out the production and consumption of ODS in different duration for developing and developed countries. It is the result of an international corporation solving this problem. For developed countries, halons are targeted to end up by 1994, and CFCs phase out by 1996.
Once a year, held a meeting between the parties of this convention, to successfully implemented the protocol. After the signing of this convention, the data showed is worse than expected, so amendments were taken to improve the measures for restoring the Stratospheric ozone layer. Four amendments were made to that protocol until such a time as it exited.
Amendments in the Montreal protocol for taking measures according to targeting ODS in different duration in developed and developing countries.
- The London Amendments 1900
In London amendments, measures were changed for complete phase-out of halons and CFCs, CCl4 by the year 2000, for developed countries. Whereas for developing countries the period is 2010 for the end of the consumption and production of ODS. Methyl chloroform was also added in controlled ODS, the target is set to phase out its emission for developed countries is 2005 and in 2015 for developing countries. Amendments were taken with international corporations on the ozone layer protection issues.
- The Copenhagen Amendments 1992
In the fourth meeting of the parties, the phase-out plan is accelerated, and also incorporated the HCFCs in the phase-out in this plan for developed countries.
- The Montreal Amendments 1997
In this Montreal amendment, HCFCs are incorporated in the phase-out plan for developing countries. Bromomethane was also included in the phase-out plan for developing and developed counties in 2005 and 2015 respectively.
- The Beijing Amendments 1999
According to this, the phase-out plan now accelerated for HCFC and also for methyl bromide to end up production and consumption up to 2004.
- The Kigali Amendment 2016
In this recent year 2016, amendments were called Kigali Amendments, in these significant measures should be taken over the consumption of HFC. because this substance is extensively used by industries. This substance don did not have a high potential to disturb the ozone layer but it’s a greenhouse gas and has a high potential to affect climatic patterns.
These amendments are taken in different meetings under the consideration of the recovery of the ozone layer. Under the control measures and with the global corporation resolving this issue. With global efforts implemented the measures regarding ozone-depleting substance. To protect or restore our natural balance ecosystem.