Introduction of Cartagena protocol on Bio-safety
Cartagena Protocol on Bio-Safety to the convention of biological diversity is a multilateral international protocol. It acts as a supplement to the convention of biological diversity. This protocol provides the regulatory framework. This framework accommodates the safe trade, handling, and protection from genetically modified organisms result of biotechnology. This protocol addresses the adverse effect of products of biotechnology. It addresses the issue of biosafety. It is the regulatory framework for the protection of life and the environment.
History of Convention on biological diversity
The convention on Biological Diversity is a multilateral international agreement. This convention has been approved in Nairobi in May 1992. This opened for signature in UNCED in Rio in June 1992. 196 countries signed this protocol. This protocol entered into force on 29th December 1993. The purpose of this convention is to address all biological diversity issues. It deals with equitable sharing of genetic resources and conserving all species on Earth. Under the convention of biological diversity, the issue of the Safety of living organisms is addressed. Modern biotechnology harms species. GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) resulting from modern biotechnology threaten the diversity of species.
To address this issue, 2nd meeting is held at this convention and they established an Ad Hock Working Group to handle this project. Based on it, the international framework in form of the official procedures was developed. This protocol was finalized in Montreal on January 29th, 2000 in the form of the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety. This is considered a healing step toward the biosafety issue.
The objective of the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety
- This protocol framework was developed for the safe handling and transboundary movement of GMOs (Genetically Modified organisms). So, avoiding the adverse effect of modern biotechnology products on life and the environment.
- Linking international human rights and trade Law to develop the regulatory framework.
- Ensure an adequate level of safety for the transboundary movement of living organisms.
- Monitor and address risk assessment and risk management challenges resulting from modern biotechnology.
- Before making any decision on import, risk assessment analysis is necessary.
- Take into account all risks to human health result of modern biotechnology.
- Minimizing the risk that could be from GMOs result of modern biotechnology to the environment or human life.
- Assist international technologies in regulating emerging technologies.
- For accountability of damage to Biodiversity, a supplementary protocol was developed
This convention is not applied to the transboundary movement of a living organism for humans which is already pharmaceutically addressed or suggested by other international agreements or organizations