Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS)
Ozone is the protective layer that shields the earth from the harmful rays of the sun. This thin layer of ozone lies in the stratosphere region of the atmosphere. But this layer is depleting due to substances called Ozone depleting substances (ODS). Ozone-depleting substances are man-made substances. The emission of these substances destroys the ozone layer and allows the Ultra Violet radiations to reach out to the earth. These radiations have harmful impacts on life and the environment.
Example of ODS
Ozone-depleting substances including Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and methyl bromide (CH3Br).
Impact of ODS
The emission of ODS is a global concern issue. A radicle of halogens destroys the thousands of molecules of the ozone. These substances impact the ozone layer. Radicles of halogen destroy the molecules of ozone. These substances caused the depletion of the ozone layer and create holes in the ozone layer. These holes permit the entrance of ultraviolet radiation reaching out to the earth. This radiation causes harm to life and the environment. The effects due to ultraviolet radiation included:
- It causes many diseases including skin and eyes cancer, sunburn, and many diseases related to eyes and skin.
- It has a significant impact on plants as it retards their growth and damages the plants.
- Due to ozone-depleting substances, the global issue of climate crisis raised. As ozone-depleting substances include Chlorofluorocarbons which cause climate change. That is why this is called a greenhouse gas as it takes part in raising the temperature of the environment.
Factors involved in ozone depletion
Humans are harming nature and nature creating protective layers through their anthropogenic activities and destroying them. Similarly, Humans produce ODS through their anthropogenic activities. Sources of these substances include gasses and aerosols. These gasses emit from air conditioners, refrigerators, vehicles, foam, and aerosol propellants. There are almost 100 chemicals that are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS).
Initiative against ODS
Montreal Protocol is a multilateral environment agreement. It is a global initiative against ozone-depleting substances (ODS). This convention is documented to phasing out the consumption and production of ozone-depleting substances. This convention is accepted widely. United Nations 198 Members ratified this Montreal protocol. This protocol was accepted on September 15, 1987.
Ozone is the protective layer that shields the earth from the UV radiation of the sun. But this layer is depleting due to Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS). Montreal protocol was the global initiative to protect the Ozone layer from the hazardous effects of ODS.
Objectives of the Montreal Protocol
Montreal protocol was developed with the engagement of all countries worldwide for phasing out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances.
- The protocol was developed for developed and for developing countries for reducing and phasing out the ODS during different periods in different countries.
- Preventive and regulatory approach on import and export of ozone-depleting substances.
- Provision of control measures, control level, control of trade, compliance, and technical assistance included in this protocol.